مشاهدة النسخة كاملة : مسرحية A Doll's House شرح وملخص رائع
[• لُوُلـيـتًـآإ •]
21-May-2009, 09:52 PM
A DOLL'S HOUSE By Henrik Ibsen
HERE IT IS WITH EVERYTHING I'VE FOUND ABOUT IT
The play itself in English, is in the attachment down below .A Full Summary and
Biography of Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906):l
Henrik Johan Ibsen, born in 1828 in Skien, Norway, was the eldest of five children after the early death of his older brother. His father, Knud Ibsen, one in a long line of sea captains, was born in 1797 in Skein and married Marichen Cornelia Martie Altenburg, the daughter of a German merchant, in 1825. Though Ibsen later reported that Skein was a pleasant place to grow up in, his own childhood was not particularly happy. Described as an unsociable child, his sense of isolation increased at the age of sixteen when his father's business had to be sold to meet the demands of his creditors. On top of this, a rumor began circulating that Henrik was the illegitimate son of another man. Although the rumor was never proven to be true, it manifested itself in the theme of illegitimate offspring that runs throughout Ibsen's later works. After Knud's business was repossessed, all that remained of the family's former estate was a dilapidated farmhouse on the outskirts of Skein. It was there that Ibsen began to attend the small, middle-class school where he cultivated a talent for painting, if nothing else. He was also taught German and Latin, as well as drawing. In 1843, at the age of fifteen, Ibsen was confirmed and taken from the school. Though he had declared his interest in becoming a painter, Ibsen was apprenticed to an apothecary shortly before his sixteenth birthday.
Leaving his family, Ibsen traveled to Grimstad, a small, isolated town, to begin his apprenticeship. He maintained a strong desire to gain admission to the University to study medicine, and also fathered an illegitimate son with the maid of the apothecary. Despite his unhappy lot, Ibsen began to write in earnest in Grimstad. Inspired by the revolution of 1848, Ibsen wrote satire and elegant poetry. At the age of twenty-one, Ibsen left Grimstad for the capital. While in Christiania (now Oslo), Ibsen passed his exams but opted not to pursue his education, instead turning to playwriting and journalism. It was in Christiania that he penned his first play, Cataline, written in blank verse about the failure of the conspiracy against Rome, and published in 1849. It sold only 45 copies and was rejected by every theatre Ibsen submitted it to for performance. Ibsen also spent time analyzing and criticizing modern Norwegian literature.
Still poor, Ibsen gladly accepted a contract to write for and help manage the newly constituted National Theater in Bergen in 1851. Untrained and largely uneducated, Ibsen learned much from his time at the theater, producing such works as St. John's Night. The majority of his writings from this period were based on folksongs, folklore, and history. In 1858, Ibsen moved back to Christiania to become the creative director of the city's Norwegian Theater. That same year, Ibsen married Suzannah Thoresen, with whom he fathered a child named Sigurd Ibsen. Though his plays suggest otherwise, Ibsen revered the state of marriage, believing that it was possible for two people to travel through life as perfect, happy equals. During this period, Ibsen also developed a daily routine from which he would not deviate until his first stroke in 1901: he would rise, consume a small breakfast, take a long walk, write for five hours, eat dinner, and finish the night off with entertainment or early retirement to bed. Despite this routine, Ibsen found his life in Bergen difficult, though he did pen several plays, including Love's Comedy, a close relation of A Doll's House for suggesting that love and marriage are not necessarily synonymous. Luckily, in 1864, his friends generously offered him money that they had collected, allowing him to move to Italy. He was to spend the next twenty-seven years living in Italy and Germany. During this time abroad, he authored a number of successful works, including Brand (1866) and Peer Gynt (1867), both (significantly) written to be read rather than to be performed.
Ibsen moved to Dresden in 1868, and then to Munich in 1875. It was in Munich, in 1879, that Ibsen wrote his groundbreaking play, A Doll's House. He pursued his interest in realistic drama for the next decade, earning international acclaim; many of his works were published in translation and performed throughout Europe. Ibsen eventually turned to a new style of writing, abandoning his interest in realism for a series of so-called symbolic dramas. He completed his last work in exile, Hedda Gabler, in 1890.
After being away from Norway for twenty-seven years, Ibsen and Suzannah returned in 1891. Shortly afterwards, he finished writing The Master Builder, after which he took a short break. In late 1893, in need of moist air to help cure her recurring gout, Suzannah left for southern Italy. While his wife was away, Ibsen found a companion in a young female pianist, Hildur Andersen, with whom he spent a great deal of time. He continued to correspond with her even after Suzannah's return. Ibsen's relationship with Andersen was characteristic of his larger interest in the younger generation; he was famous for seeking out their ideas and encouraging their writing.
Ibsen's later plays tended to meet with controversy on the occasions of their first performances: Hedda Gabler was reviled by critics of the published script and of the first production in 1890. It is at about this time that Ibsen's work, perhaps to do with G.B.Shaw's lecture The Quintessence of Ibsenism, also in 1890, became extremely popular in England.
After suffering a series of strokes, Ibsen died in 1906 at the age of seventy-eight. He was unable to write for the last five years of his life, following a stroke which also left him unable to walk.
[Link nur für registrierte Benutzer sichtbar] ([Link nur für registrierte Benutzer sichtbar]></b>:void(0))
[• لُوُلـيـتًـآإ •]
21-May-2009, 09:54 PM
About A Doll's House:l
Ibsen's A Doll's House (1879), written while Ibsen was in Rome and Amalfi, was born in a time of revolution in Europe. Charged with the fever of the 1848 revolution, a new modern perspective was beginning to emerge in the literary and dramatic world, challenging the romantic tradition; it is Ibsen who can be credited for mastering and popularizing the realist drama derived from this new perspective. His plays were both read and performed throughout Europe (in numerous translations) like no other dramatist before. A Doll's House was published and premiered in Copenhagen.
His success was particularly important for Norway and the Norwiegian language. Freed from four centuries of Danish rule in 1814, Norway was just beginning to shake off the legacy of Danish domination. A Doll's House was written in a form of Norweigan that still bore heavy traces of Danish. Ibsen deliberately chose a colloquial language style to emphasize the theme of realism. Ibsen quickly became Norway's most popular dramatic figure. But, it is the universality of Ibsen's writings?and particularly A Doll's House?that have made this play a classic.
A Doll's House was the second in a series of realist plays by Ibsen. The first, The Pillars of Society, penned in 1877, caused a stir throughout Europe, quickly spreading to the avant guarde theaters of the island and continent. In adopting the realist form, Ibsen abandoned his earlier style of saga plays, historical epics, and verse allegories. Ibsen's letters reveal that much of what is contained in his realist dramas is based on events from his own life. Indeed, he was particularly interested in the possibility of true wedlock and in women in general, later writing a series of psychological studies on women.
One of the most striking and oft-noted characteristics of A Doll's House is the way in which it challenged the technical tradition of the so-called well made play in which the first act offered an exposition, the second a situation, and the third an unravelling. This had been the standard form from the earliest fables up until A Doll's House. Ibsen's play was noteable for exchanging the last act's unravelling for a discussion. Critics agree that, up until the last moments of the play, A Doll's House could easily be just another modern drama broadcasting another comfortable moral lesson. However, when Nora tells Torvald that they must sit down and "discuss all this that has been happening between us", the play diverges from the traditional form. With this new technical feature, A Doll's House became an international sensation and founded a new school of dramatic art.
Additionally, A Doll's House subverted another dramatic traditions, this one related to character. Namely, Ibsen's realist drama disregarded the tradition of the older male moral figure. Dr. Rank, the character who should serve this role, is far from a moral force; instead, he is sickly--rotting from a disease picked up from his father's earlier sexual exploits--and lascivious, openly coveting Nora. The choice to portray both Dr. Rank and the potentially matronly Mrs. Linde as imperfect, real people was a novel approach at the time.
The real nature of Ibsen's characters were and remain a challenge for actors. Many actresses find it difficult to portray both a silly, immature Nora in the first act or so and the serious, open-minded Nora of the end of the last act. Similarly, actors are challenged to portray the full depth of Torvald's character. Many are tempted to play him as an slimy, patronizing brute, disregarding the character's range and genuininess of emotion and conviction.
A more obvious importance of A Doll's House is the feminist message that rocked the stages of Europe when the play was premiered. Nora's rejection of marriage and motherhood scandalized contemporary audiences. In fact, the first German productions of the play in the 1880s had an altered ending at the request of the producers. Ibsen referred to this version as a "barbaric outrage" to be used only in emergencies.
In large part, Ibsen was reacting to the uncertain tempo of the time; Europe was being reshaped with revolutions. The revolutionary spirit and the emergence of modernism influenced Ibsen's choice to focus on an unlikely hero?a housewife?in his attack on middle-class values. Quickly becoming the talk of parlors across Europe, the play succeeded in its attempt to provoke discussion. In fact, it is the numerous ways that the play can be read (and read it was?the printed version of A Doll's House sold out even before it hit the stage) that make the play so interesting. Each new generation has had a different way of interpreting the book, from feminist critique to Hegelian allegory of the spirit's historical evolution. The text is simply that rich.
[• لُوُلـيـتًـآإ •]
21-May-2009, 09:55 PM
Nora Helmer: Main character of play. Nora has never lived alone, going immediately from the care of her father to that of her husband. Inexperienced in the ways of the world as a result of this sheltering, Nora is impulsive and materialistic. However, the play questions the extent to which these are mere masks that Nora uses to negotiate the patriarchal oppression she faces every day. Over the course of the three Acts, Nora emerges as a fully independent woman who rejects both the false union of her marriage and the burden of motherhood.
Torvald Helmer: Husband of Nora Helmer of eight years who, at the beginning of the play, has been promoted to manager of the bank. Torvald has built his middle-class living through his own work and not from family money. Focused on business, Torvald spends a great deal of his time at home in his study, avoiding general visitors and interacting very little with his children. In fact, he sees himself primarily as responsible for the financial welfare of his family and as a guardian for his wife. Torvald is particularly concerned with morality.
Dr. Rank: Friend of the family and physician of Torvald, Dr. Rank embodies and subverts the theatrical role of the male moral force that had been traditional in the plays of the time. Rather than providing moral guidance and example for the rest of the characters, Dr. Rank is a corrupt force, both physically and morally. Sick from consumption of the spine as a result of his father's sexual exploits, the Doctor confesses his desire for Nora in the second Act and goes off to die in the third.
Mrs. Christine Linde: An old schoolmate of Nora's, Christine comes back into Nora's life after losing her husband and mother. Pressed for money, Christine successfully asks Nora to help her secure a job at Torvald's bank; ultimately, Christine decides that she will only be happy if she goes off with Krogstad. Christine's older, weary viewpoint provides a foil for Nora's youthful impetuousness as well as a symbol of the ultimate hollowness of the matriarchal role. Her relationship with Krogstad also provides a point of comparison for that of Nora and Torvald.
Nils Krogstad: Man from whom Nora borrows money to pay for trip to Italy and an employee at the bank with Torvald. Krogstad was involved in a work scandal many years previously; as a result, his name has been sullied and his career stunted. When his job at the bank is jeopardized by Torvald's refusal to work with a man he sees as a hopelessly corrupt, Krogstad blackmails Nora to ensure that he does not lose his job. However, after being reunited with Mrs. Linde (an early amorous connection), he repents and sends back the bond.
Three children (Ivar, Bob, and Emmy): Nora's young children. Raised primarily by Anne, the Nurse (and Nora's old Nurse), the children spend little time with their mother or father. The time they do spend with Nora consists of Nora playing with them as if she were just another playmate.
Anne: The family Nurse. Anne raised Nora, who had lost her mother, and stayed on to raise Nora's children.
Helen: A Housemaid
[• لُوُلـيـتًـآإ •]
21-May-2009, 09:57 PM
Act I Setting:
It is important to note that the whole play takes place in one room and that, until the last act, Nora is in every scene; she never seems to leave the room‹everything comes to her. She is literally trapped in domestic comfort.
Also, the first Act takes place on Christmas Eve. However, though there is a great deal of talk about morality throughout the play, Christmas is never presented as a religious holiday and religion as a concept is later questioned by Nora in the third Act. In fact, it is discussed primarily as a material experience. This emphasis is similar to the general theme of the centrality of material goods over personal connection.
Act I Women and Men:
Women and Men:
This play focuses on the way that women are seen, especially in the context of marriage and motherhood. Torvald, in particular, has a very clear and narrow definition of a woman's role. He believes that it is the sacred duty of a woman to be a good wife and mother. Moreover, he tells Nora that women are responsible for the morality of their children. In essence, he sees women as both child-like, helpless creatures detached from reality and influential moral forces responsible for the purity of the world through their influence in the home.
"HEL: That is like a woman!"
"NORA: It was like being a man."
"HEL: Almost everyone who has gone to the bad early in life has had a deceitful mother."
"HEL: It seems most commonly to be the mother's influence, though naturally a bad father's would have the same result."
"NORA: Because one is a woman it does not necessarily follow that--- When anyone is in a subordinate position, Mr. Krogstad, they should really be careful to avoid offending anyone who-"
The perception of manliness is also discussed, though in a much more subtle way. Nora's description of Torvald suggests that she is partially aware of the lies inherent in the male role as much as that of the female. Torvald's conception of manliness is based on the value of total independence. He abhors the idea of financial or moral dependence on anyone. His desire for independence leads to the question of whether he is out of touch with reality.
"NORA: And, besides, how painful and humiliating it would be for Torvald, with his manly independence, to know that he owed me anything! It would upset our mutual relations altogether; our beautiful happy home would no longer be what it is now." "NORA: Christine is tremendously clever at bookkeeping, and she is frightfully anxious to work under some clever man, so as to perfect herself"
Tied to the discussion of men and women are the frequent references to Nora's father. Throughout the play, there are references to Nora's father. Furthermore, Nora is frequently equated with him, from her actions (though people think he gave Nora and Torvald the money for their trip to Italy, it was actually Nora) to her disposition. Quotations like the one below suggest that Nora does wish that she were like her father and, taking that further, male. Her desire suggests a deeper understanding of the confinement she faces than might otherwise be apparent.
"HEL: Very like your father.
NORA: Ah, I wish I had inherited many of Papa's qualities"
Act I: Materialism v. People: Another central theme of this play is the importance placed on materialism rather than people. This is particularly important for Torvald, whose sense of manhood depends on his independence. In fact, he was an unsuccessful barrister because he refused to take "unsavory cases". As a result, he switched to the bank, where he primarily deals with money. In other words, money and materialism can be seen as a way to avoid the complications of personal contact.
Act I: Images of women:
Nora, as a symbol of woman, is called a number of names by Torvald throughout the play. These include "little songbird", "squirrel", "lark", "little featherhead", "little skylark", "little person", and "little woman". Torvald is extremely consistent about using the modifier "little" before the names he calls Nora. These are all usually followed by the possessive "my", signaling Torvald's belief that Nora is his.
Torvald's chosen names for Nora reveal that he does not see her as an equal by any means; rather, Nora is at times predictable and silly doll and at times a captivating and exotic pet or animal, all created for Torvald.
Act II: Light: Light is used to illustrate Nora's personal journey. After the turning point of Torvald's claim to want to take everything upon himself and while she is talking to Dr. Rank, the light begins to grow dark, just as Nora sinks to new levels of manipulation. When Dr. Rank reveals his affection, Nora is jolted out of this fantasy world and into reality and insists on bringing a lamp into the room, telling the Doctor that he must feel silly saying such things with the light on.
Act II: The Dress:
Nora's ball dress symbolizes the character she plays in her marriage to Torvald. Take note of when Nora is supposed to be wearing it and for whom.
"MRS. L: I see you are going to keep up the character NORA: Yes, Torvald wants me to."
Act II: The Tarantella:
A tarantella is a folk dance from southern Italy that accelerates from its already quick tempo and alternates between major and minor keys. In its constant fluctuation, it is like Nora's character. In this Act, it serves as Nora's last chance to be Torvald's doll, to dance and amuse him. Also, the tarantella is commonly (and falsely) known as a dance that is supposed to rid the dancer of the bite of the tarantula. Applied to the play, its use suggests that Nora is trying to rid herself of the deadly poison of an outside force, however fruitlessly. Rather than alleviating the bite, though, the music and her life only continue to accelerate and spin out of control.
"HEL: But, my dear Nora, you look so worn out. Have you been practicing too much? NORA: No, I have not practiced at all. HEL: But you will need to--- NORA: Yes, indeed I shall, Torvald. But, I can't get on a bit without you to help me; I have absolutely forgotten the whole thing."
Act II: Names for Nora: Torvald continues to call Nora a number of different names, all diminutive in nature. However, it is interesting that they are less consistently animal and innocuous in nature. He calls her his "little rogue", "little skylark", "little person", "helpless little mortal", and "child".
Act II: Money v. People:
Images of monetary wealth appear throughout the text.
"RANK: Lately I have been taking stock of my internal economy. Bankrupt!"
Act III: Dr. Rank and Mrs. Linde:
The juxtaposition of their entrances at the beginning of the play (they enter together) suggests that there is something similar about the two. In fact, given both the theatrical standards of the time and the expectations of women, it is easy to see that they might be considered moral forces within the play. In fact, Dr. Rank represents the male moral figure that had been common to plays at the time that Ibsen was writing. Dr. Rank's character usually provided moral standards on which the other, more confused characters of the play could depend. However, Dr. Rank subverts this role. He is both physically and morally tainted. He is dying from a disease begotten from his father's early sexual indiscretions, his body rotting. Additionally, though he presents himself as a great friend to the Helmers, his motives are far from pure‹he is in love with Nora.
Mrs. Linde, similarly, represents the hollowness of the role of wife and mother. Left destitute and unhappy by an unloving marriage, she has derived her livelihood from being useful to others. However, when she is left alone, she only feels empty. Her life has been based upon appeasing material wants for herself and for others and has had little to do with personal growth.
Both Dr. Rank and Mrs. Linde enter the play as influences on Nora and Torvald. Dr. Rank is a foil for Torvald's unyielding sense of morality and Mrs. Linde a foil for Nora's belief in the importance of motherhood and marriage. Over the course of the play, the problems of both Dr. Rank and Mrs. Linde are solved through either death or a knowing embrace of another union of dependency. In the case of Mrs. Linde, though, it is arguable as to whether her decision to go off with Krogstad is a positive or negative decision. On the one hand, she will be entering the relationship on roughly equal footing with Krogstad; they are both dependent on the other (unlike Nora and Torvald). On the other hand, Mrs. Linde is only entering into another situation in which she derives her livelihood from taking care of others; she still has not gone through a real process of self-discovery (which Nora advocates at the end).
Act II: Setting:
This Act takes place on Christmas Day, after the magic and mystery of Christmas Eve has passed. As in real life, all has been revealed.
Also, notice that Nora complains about not daring to leave the house. She is still confined to the domestic world that she knows so well.
Act II: Women and Men::
Torvald's belief in the importance of independence is emphasized in this Act. When confronted with Nora's pleas to change his mind about Krogstad's dismissal, he tells her that he would hate to appear to have been influenced by his wife.
"HEL: Do you suppose that I am going to make myself ridiculous before my whole staff, to let people think I am a man to be swayed by all sorts of outside influence?" "HEL: You see I am man enough to take everything upon myself."
Nora's father continues to be mentioned in Act II, this time as a foil for Torvald. Though Torvald has early compared Nora to her father, he insults his character.
"HEL: My little Nora, there is an important difference between your father and me. Your father's reputation as a public official was not above suspicion. Mine is, and I hope it will continue to be so as long as I hold office." "NORA: But surely you can understand that being with Torvald is a little like being with Papa---"
Act III: Names for Nora: By the end of the play, Torvald seems confused as to what to think of Nora‹is she a woman, a creature, or a small child? It is this uncertainty that is the basis of the discussion aspect of the act; the reader or playgoer is left to decide for him/herself. Names include: "little skylark", "fascinating, charming little darling", "my darling wife", "my little singing bird", "miserable creature", "a thoughtless woman", "my frightened little singing bird", "little, scared darling", "blind, foolish woman", and "a heedless child".
[• لُوُلـيـتًـآإ •]
21-May-2009, 09:59 PM
A Doll's House traces the awakening of Nora Helmer from her unexamined life of domestic comfort. Ruled her whole life by either her father or her husband, Nora must question the foundation of everything she believes in when her marriage is put to the test. Having borrowed money from a man of ill-repute named Krogstad by forging her father's signature, she was able to pay for a trip to Italy to save her sick husband's life (he was unaware of his condition and the loan, believing that the money came from Nora's father). Since then, she has had to contrive ways to pay back her loan, growing particularly concerned with money.
When the play opens, it is Christmas Eve and we find out that Torvald has just been promoted to manager of the bank, where he will receive a big raise. Nora is thrilled because she thinks that she will finally be able to pay off the loan and be rid of it. Her happiness, however, is marred when an angry Krogstad approaches her. He has just learned that his position at the bank has been promised to Mrs. Linde, an old school friend of Nora's who has recently arrived in town in search of work, and tells Nora that he will reveal her secret if she does not persuade her husband to let him keep his position. Nora tries to convince Torvald, using all of her feminine tricks that he encourages, but is unsuccessful. Torvald tells her that Krogstad's morally corrupt nature is too repulsive to him, and impossible to work with. Nora becomes very worried.
The next day, Nora is nervously moving about the house, afraid that Krogstad will appear at any minute. Luckily for her sake, she has the preparations for a big costume ball that will take place the next night, to preoccupy her. She converses with a concerned Mrs. Linde while Mrs. Linde repairs her dress. When Torvald returns from the bank, where he has been taking care of business, she again takes up her pleas on behalf of Krogstad. This time, Torvald not only refuses, but also sends off the notice of termination that he has already prepared for Krogstad, reassuring a scared Nora that he will take upon himself any bad things that befall them as a result. Nora is extremely moved by this comment and begins to consider the possibility of this episode transforming their marriage for the better as well as the possibility of suicide. Meanwhile, she converses and flirts with a very willing Dr. Rank. Learning that he is rapidly dying, she takes up an intimate conversation that culminates in him professing his love just before she is able to ask him for a favor (to help her with her problem). His words stop her and she steers the conversation back to safer grounds. Their talk is interrupted by the announcement of Krogstad. Nora asks Dr. Rank to leave and has Krogstad brought in. Her loaner asks tells her that he has had a change of heart and that, though he will keep the bond, he will not reveal her to the public. Instead, he wants to give Torvald a note explaining the matter so that Torvald will be pressed to help Krogstad rehabilitate himself. Nora protests Torvald's involvement, but Krogstad drops the letter in Torvald's letterbox anyway, much to Nora's horror. Nora exclaims aloud that she and Torvald are lost. However, she still tries to use her charms to prevent Torvald from reading the letter, luring him away from business by begging him to help her with her tarantella for the next night's ball. He agrees to put off business until after the tarantella is over.
The next night, before Torvald and Nora return from the ball, Mrs. Linde and Krogstad, old lovers, reunite in the Helmer's living room. Mrs. Linde asks to take care of Krogstad and his children and to help him become the better man that he knows he is capable of becoming. The Helmers return from the ball as Mrs. Linde is leaving (Krogstad has already left), Torvald nearly dragging Nora into the room. Alone, Torvald tells Nora how much he desires her but is interrupted by Dr. Rank. The Doctor, unbeknownst to Torvald, has come by to say his final farewells, as he covertly explains to Nora. After he leaves, Nora is able to deter Torvald from pursuing her anymore by reminding him of the ugliness of death that has just come between them (Nora having revealed Dr. Rank's secret) and, seeing that Torvald has collected his letters, resigns herself to committing suicide. As she is leaving, though, Torvald stops her. He has just read Krogstad's letter and is enraged by its *******s, accusing Nora of ruining his life. He pretty much tells her that he plans on forsaking her, contrary to his earlier claim that he would take on everything himself. During his tirade, he is interrupted by the maid bearing another note from Krogstad (addressed to Nora). Torvald reads it and becomes overjoyed‹Krogstad has had a change of heart and has sent back the bond. Torvald quickly tells Nora that it is all over, that he has forgiven her, and that her pathetic attempt to help him has only made her more endearing than ever. Nora, seeing Torvald's true character for the first time, sits her husband down to tell him that she is leaving him. After protestations from Torvald, she explains that he does not love her and, after tonight, she does not love him. She tells him that, given the suffocating life she has led until now, she owes it to herself to become fully independent and to explore her own character and the world for herself. As she leaves, she reveals to Torvald that she was hoping that they would be able to unite in real wedlock, but that she has lost all hope. The play ends with the door slamming on her way out.
دعواتكم /، لولو
23-Apr-2010, 11:57 PM
25-Oct-2010, 06:00 PM
الله يوفقكم ويعطييكم العافيه على هذا المجهود الرائع
14-May-2012, 12:15 PM
شكراً على هذا المجهود الرائع
النسخة الماسية الإصدار vBulletin 3.8.7